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Learn More. The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue.

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First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content.

Third, content analyses published in Sex Role s and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined. Content is ubiquitous. Attached to the human capacity to create symbols is a capacity to analyze symbols, and many scholars have embraced the task of content analysis in order to increase our understanding of our symbolized world.

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This analysis can take many forms, from narrative semiotics, functional pragmatics, objective hermeneutics, and related methodologies on the qualitative side of the epistemological spectrum e. A natural focus of this analysis, whatever the methodology, is the symbols that re present our basic human traits, like sex, and the social constructions of our basic traits, like gender.

Quantitative content analysis of gender roles is the focus of both this special issue and a second special issue scheduled to be published in Sex Roles later this year. The primary aim of this paper is to provide context for the articles that follow.

Historical context is provided through a review of a timeline of past content analysis research. Theoretical context is provided through a discussion of research objectives that typically drive the analysis of gender-roles content. Quantitative context is provided through a description and classification of content analysis articles published in gender-focused journals, and in particular, in Sex Roles.

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Immediate context is provided through an overview of some of the innovations and contributions of the specific articles in this special issue. The discussion proceeds from most general to most specific, from information about content analysis, to information about content analysis of gender roles, to information about content analysis of gender roles in Sex Roles, to information about content analysis of gender roles in this special issue of Sex Roles. In the broadest sense, people have examined the content of texts for millennia.

The early 20th century saw various calls to carry out large-scale content analysis of the printed press. Weather Bureau monitors weather statistics Krippendorff Neither enterprise was feasible at that time, but smaller content analysis projects began to materialize. InSpeed produced a quantitative, longitudinal analysis of four New York newspapers published between andand similar studies were later conducted by Fenton, MathewsStreetand Wilcox During the following decades, Willey published a book about the content of weekly country newspapers, Woodward wrote Quantitative Newspaper Analysis as a Technique of Opinion Researchand Albig conducted the first content analysis of radio.

The world wars of the 20th century impacted not only the advancement of media technology, but also the development of content analysis. But it was World War II, and the concomitant frenzy surrounding the feared impact of wartime propaganda, that established the type of content analysis that is still carried out today. An example of a study that led Berelson to his conclusions was one in which he and De Grazia analyzed German and Italian propaganda that was broadcast during the Second World War. They were able to correctly determine that the two nations were not cooperating in their propaganda efforts.

Another founder of modern content analysis was Lasswell. In the late s, his book Language of Politics Lasswell et al. Further development of content analysis was fostered by two interdisciplinary conferences: one inat the Allerton House of the University of Illinois de Sola Pool and the other in at the University of Pennsylvania Annenberg School for Communication Gerbner et al.

Among many topics discussed at these conferences was the newly emerging technique of computer-assisted content analysis. Eventually, the appeals for large-scale content analysis of mass media made at the beginning of the 20th century came to fruition. The project entailed the analysis of 1 week of fictional TV programming per year to examine trends in television portrayals of violence and of women, minorities, and the elderly.

The project formally continued for nearly two decades, and similar research on cultural indicators continues today. Starting in10, hr of TV programming were coded over a three-year period to assess the amount and context of violence on television.

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More recent content analyses following in the tradition of NTVS have embraced its large scale. The Sex on TV project most recently, Kunkel et al. In recent years, the of content analyses published in various disciplines has increased exponentially e.

Content analysis is exercised in such diverse fields as communication, political science, psychology, literature, and business. In the field of gender studies, the yield of content analyses has been especially abundant see Neuendorf Various scholars have complained that many content analyses seem to lack any theoretical grounding, and have cautioned that content analysis is just a methodology and not a value in itself e.

A content analysis is only as valuable as the rationale behind it. The historical trajectory of content analysis as a research methodology has co-occurred with the historical trajectory of scholarly interest in gender equality. Surveying both trajectories together reveals popular types of theoretical and practical rationales for conducting gender-related content analysis.

The historical roots of the analysis of gender-related content lie in the practical agendas of a sociopolitical movement, and they illustrate one of the primary objectives for analyzing content involving gender roles. In some early feminist writings e. This method, however, did not allow for generalizations. Some of the earliest gender-roles content analyses focused on comic strips Saenger ; Spiegelman et al.

Rather than limiting their studies by merely counting s of males and females and, e. They observed that men in comic strips were primarily concerned with achieving power and justice by violent or industrious means and that women in comic strips sought more passive goals of romantic love and domestic comfort through their personal charm Spiegelman et al. Single men mastered all situations, were aggressive, and were drawn bigger than were females, yet once they got married, men were portrayed as less aggressive, more powerless, and more irrational, and they were even visually shrunk until they were smaller than were their wives Saenger His sample of over photographic advertisements portrayed women as subordinates to men and portrayed men as overlords who treat women as children rather than equals.

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Systematic content analyses have generally supported the criticisms of feminist writers; they have consistently found that men are more likely than are women to appear in almost all media texts, and that men and women are often shown in roles that are traditional and stereotyped e. These findings appeared in the earliest content analyses of gender roles and continue to appear today. This is only one potential motivation for producing gender-related content analysis. Other research objectives can be roughly classified into three additional groups, for a total of four research objectives which can also be considered goals, motivations, or rationales :.

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However, even if research objectives do overlap, gender-focused content analysts themselves often originate from only one of three perspectives or traditions, corresponding to the first, third, and fourth research objectives: feminism, media effects, and media production. The four may not be exhaustive or mutually exclusive, but they nevertheless provide a useful framework for discussing gender-based content analyses. However, a substantial body of research e. Many gender-focused content analysts combine their with knowledge about media influence in order to predict likely effects of the content that they analyzed.

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Goffman echoed this thought, asserting that gender role portrayals both reflect social reality and shape social reality by influencing audience conceptions of what is proper, desirable, and normal. The notion that media content has effects can not only serve to motivate researchers to study content, but it can also serve to direct investigations of effects. Since then, few researchers have utilized content analyses to directly and simultaneously link content with effects.

Among those few are Collins et al. Because the researchers were able to determine the precise content viewed by the teenagers, they were able to directly link exposure to specific types of content with specific outcomes. Even though studies involving multiple research methodologies require substantial resources, combining content analyses with experiments or survey research can provide multiplicative benefits.

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The two media-effects theories that are likely the most frequently cited as theoretical rationales for content analyses are social cognitive theory e. Cultivation theory suggests that extensive media exposure le audience members to adopt media reality as their own, and these altered conceptions of reality can in turn influence behavior see Gerbner and Gross Because both theories propose mechanisms whereby media content constructs social reality, they lend themselves naturally to the explanatory framework of content analyses that investigate the social construction of gender.

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Media producers, as members of a mediated society, have likely been influenced by media content just as other audience members have, but they possess the unique ability to shape further content to reflect their own views and the views of society, and thereby to cyclically shape further effects. A fourth research objective of content analysis, then, is to detect the influence of media producers on their content.

The former motivation is largely a psychological one, while the latter is largely sociological. An example of researchers with a media-producer research objective are Rusu and Bencicwho analyzed online personal advertisements by Romanian men and women and found that, consistent with the evolutionary psychology theory of parental investment Triversmen were more likely than were women to offer resources and to seek attributes of health and fertility in their partners, while women were more focused on older partners and their wealth.

Gender-related research motivated by a media-producer objective more typically compares content produced by one gender to content produced by the other. Armstrongfor instance, examined patterns of use of male and female sources by male and female journalists. Other prominent examples of this objective can be found in cross-cultural content analyses in which similar content produced in different cultures or countries is compared.

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Gillyfor instance, made conclusions about differences in gender-role beliefs across three countries when she found that Mexican advertisements reflected more traditional gender roles than did those found in the U. Scholars who adopt a media-production research objective hold any of several perspectives on media content producers. One is that the attitudes of content producers reflect greater sociological movements, and therefore, media content is one index of the views that are widespread within a society.

Another is that media producers reflect their own humanity in the content they produce, and therefore, media content can reveal sex differences and other facets of human nature. A third is that the output of media content producers reflects decision making within their particular institutions journalism, entertainment, advertisement, etc.

A fourth perspective is that media producers wield enormous power, and detecting entrenched viewpoints and prejudices is the first step to eliminating unwanted viewpoints and prejudices in media content and in society. As one of the premiere socioscientific journals of gender-related research, Sex Roles: A Journal of Research includes a wide variety of perspectives and research objectives. In the absence of journals focusing narrowly on quantitative content analysis of gender roles, researchers have largely relied on gender-focused publications to publish their gender-related content analyses.

In order to form a rough overview of such studies, we reviewed articles in gender-focused journals. Because we sought only a preliminary, rough meta-content-analysis, and because we primarily focused on manifest content, we elected not to conduct a formal quantitative content analysis in the sense of creating a code book and employing multiple coders; as a result, the figures that follow should be considered preliminary.

This search strategy limits this overview to journals in the PSYCInfo database and to journals that focus on gender rather than media, and it thereby excludes many articles about qualitative studies, articles in journals with low circulation, and articles by media scholars that are published in media journals though when such media-journal articles do address gender, they tend to have gender as only a minor focus.

Nevertheless, the sample does provide a rough gauge of the of gender-focused journals that publish quantitative content analyses, and it does offer some insight into the types of content analyses that interest gender scholars.

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